عن جبير بن مطعم رضي الله عنه ، قال: قال رسول الله صل الله عليه و سلم: لي خمسة أسماء أنا محمد و أنا أحمد و أنا الماحي الذي يمحو الله بي الكفر و أنا الحاشر الذي يحشر الناس على قدمي و أنا العاقب
Narrated from Jubair Ibn Mut’em (R), said: The Prophet ﷺ said,” I have five names- 1. I am Muhammad (praised)
2. I am Ahmad (more admired)
3. I am Mahi (Eraser, Allah the Almighty has erased Kufr by me)
4. I am Haashir (gatherer, mankind will be gathered surrounding me)
5. I am Aaqib ( comer in behind)
Source of Hadith:
This speech is narrated in Sahih of Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim’s Sahih, Imam Tirmizi’s Sunan, Muatta of Imam Malek, Imam Daremi’s Sunan and in Musnad of Imam Ahmad(R)
Interpretation of Hadith
Explanation of لي خمسة أسماء :
The meaning of this part is ,I have five names. Is the name of Prophet ﷺ (SM) limited into five names? Several opinions are found in this regard. Examples,
- Here the member 5 is not speech of Prophet, it is given by narrator.
- According to some peoples, by the five names the Prophet wanted to make understand that this five names were given him specially. Never anybody was named by these names
- These names are more honorable and were more famous in former age. ( Fathul Bari, part 6, page-622)
- Qadi Ayaz (R) said, حمى الله هذه الأسماء ان يسمى بها أحد قبله و إنما تسمى بعض العرب محمدا قرب ميلاده لما سمعوا من الكهاه و الاخبار أن نبيا سيبعث في ذالك الزمان يسمى محمدا فرجوا أن سيكون هم فسموا إبنا نمح بذالك
Means: Allah the Almighty saved these names to be named in previous age. Even some Arabian named their childrens as Muhammad nearby Prophet’s coming. Because, they heard from scholars and astrologists that a Prophet will come named Muhammad very soon. And they hoped their childrens will be that prophet. For this they named their childrens Muhammad. (Fathul Bari, part 6, page-622)
Noted by number 5 in Hadith the name of Prophet ﷺ was not limited into five names only. Rather remarkable and most honorable name was meant by it. By which only the Prophet was specialized.
Number of Prophet’s ﷺ name:
According to Islamic scholars, many names bear highest dignity and of a man nemed by these. Most of the names of Prophet are attributive. In this regard Imam Nababi said,
و غالب هذه الأسماء التى ذكروها إنما هى صفات كالعاقب و الحشرو فإطلاق الإسم عليها مجاز
The most of the names of Prophet ﷺ remarked by the Islamic scholars are attributive. Such as Aaqib, Hashir etc. So, uses of name on attribute is on metaphor. (Subulul Huda wa al-Rashad, Part-1, Page-400)
There is no fixed opinion regarding the number of Prophet’s ﷺ name. In this regard different Islamic scholars give their different opinions. Such below-
1. Ibn Arabi (R.) said,
إن الله تعالى ألف اسم النبى صل الله عليه و سلم ألف اسم أيضا
Allah the Almighty has thousand names, give the Prophet ﷺ thousand names also.
2. According to Abul Hossain Bin Faris, the Prophet ﷺ has 23 names.
3. In the book ‘Subulul Huda was al-Rashad’ written by Muhammad bin Yousup Shami five hundred (500) names were found.
4. Imam Qustalani mentioned 337 names of Prophet ﷺ in his book ‘al- Mawahibul Ladunniya’ .
Several Islamic scholars wrote books on Prophet’s ﷺ names, a short list of these book is given below.
- Imam Qurtubi (R) compiled Prophet’s ﷺ name in poetry.
- Allama Badruddin Qulqini (R) wrote a book of verse named الاصطفى and later wrote a book of explanation on it named by الوفاء فى شرح الاصطفى .
- Imam Jalaluddin Suyuti (R) wrote a book named البهجة السوية لأسماء النبوية . He wrote another book also named الرياض الانيقة فى أسماء خير الخليقة .
- Sharfuddin bin Abdur Rahim wrote a poem narrated ninety nine names of Prophet ﷺ .
- A book named أسماء النبى was published from renowned institution Sarsina Darussunnah (Bangla).
Explanation of أنا محمد :
The word محمد derived from root word التحميد . Meaning of this word more admired. It is used to mean abundance in praise. The grandfather of Prophet ﷺ Abdul Muttalib named his nephew (Prophet) ‘Muhammad’ after Aqiqah.
Aiming that Allah the Lord of sky admire him in sky and inhabitants of world absorbed in praising him . (Subulul Huda, Part-1, Page-360)
This is the root and renowned name of Prophet ﷺ. The name ‘Muhammad’ is used four times in the holy Quran. Such as,
1. The verse no. 144 of Sura aale Imran-
وما محمد إلا رسول قد خلت من قبله الرسل
Muhammad ﷺ is only a Prophet. Before him many prophets are passed.
2. The verse no. 40 of Sura Ahzab-
ما كان محمد أبا أحد من رجالكم و لكن رسول الله و خاتم النبيين
Muhammad ﷺ is not father of anyone from you. Rather He is a messenger of Allah and last Prophet.
3. The verse no. 2 of Surah Muhammad-
و الذين آمنوا و عملوا الصالحات و آمنوا بما نزل على محمد
Who believe, do right deed and believe in what is revealed on Muhammad ﷺ
4. The verse no. 29 of Surah Fath-
محمد رسول الله و الذين معه أشداء على الكفار رحماء بينهم
Muhammad, the messenger of Allah and who are with him are very hard to unbelievers and sympathetic to each others.
By many reasons the name of Prophet ﷺ ‘Muhammad’ is more famous and specialized. Yousup Shami (R) mentioned several reasons regarding this. This are mentioned below-
1 The unbeliever has to pronounce ‘Muhammad’ when he is converting into Islam. Without pronouncing “Muhammad ﷺ is the messenger of Allah” nobody can be Mumin/Muslim.
2. Tashahhud or For bearing witness of Islam the name ‘Muhammad’ is determined. Even bearing witness with the name ‘Ahmad’ is not enough.
3. The number letters of the name ‘Allah (الله)’ and the number of letters of the name ‘Muhammad (محمد)’ are same. Letters of both name are four.
4. Allah, the Almighty added the name ‘Muhammad’ to his name. Such is written in the A’rsh (العرش).
5. The Almighty Allah formed the name ‘Muhammad’ from ‘Mahmud'(محمود).
Regarding this Poet of Prophet ﷺ Hassan bin Sabit said,
و ضم الإله اسم النبى إلى اسمه * إذا قال فى الخمس المؤذن أشهد
و شوله من اسمه ليجله * فذوا العرش محمود و هذا محمد
6. According to Abzadian value (ابجد) Letters of the name ‘Muhammad’ (محمد) mean the total number(313) of ‘Rasul'(رسول). Explanation is given below-
In the word محمد :
Mim(ميم) – 3
Haa(حاء) – 1
Again , ميم included 3 letters,م-ي-م
According to Abzadian (ابجد) rules,
The values of letter Mim(ميم) =40
The values of letter yaa (ي) =10
So, the values of two (ميم) Mim =40×2=80
The values of (ي) Yaa=10×1=10
So, the combined values of one (ميم) Mim=90
The combined values of three (ميم) Mim= 90×3=270
Daal (دال) included three letters . These and their values are-
1. Value of (د) Dal= 4
2. Value of (ا) Alif=1
3. Value of (ل) Laam=30
Total values of (دال) Daal= 35
After explanation the values of (حاء) Haa=8
Now, the values of combined three (ميم) Mim+values of (حاء) Has+values of (دال) Daal= 270+8+35=313. Which is the total number of Rasul (رسول).
7. In Haven the nickname of Adam (A) will Abu Muhammad. (Subul Huda war Rashad, Part-1, Page-408)
In the age of Prophet ﷺ naming with this name was legal. Such narrated by the Prophet,
سموا باسمي و لا تكتنوا بكنيتى
Give a name with my name , but don’t give a name with my nickname. (Bukhari, Hadith no. 1977)
In naming of a child adding عبد/عبيد and naming with prophets’s name specially with Muhammad is better and the way of getting blessings. Many speech are narrated in Hadith regarding naming with Muhammad.
Explanation of أنا أحمد:
The meaning of أحمد is more praised. This is the second famous name of Prophet(SM). It was used for prediction of coming of Prophet ﷺ in previous prophet’s books. Such as Allah ﷻ, the Almighty said,
و إذ قال عيسى ابن مريم يا بنى إسرائيل إنى رسول الله إليكم مصدقا لما بين يدي من التوراة و مبشرا برسول يأتي من بعدي اسمه أحمد
When Eisa ibn Maryam said, Oh Bani Israyeel! Surely I am the messenger of Allah, I am the certifier of Tawrat what revealed to you before me, I am the predictor of good news of coming of Prophet named Muhammad after me. ( Sura swaf, verse-6)
The name أحمد is mentioned in the holy Quran only one place and this verse is that. This name was not named by anyone before the Prophet ﷺ as like as Muhammad.
Explanation of أنا الماحي:
The meaning of الماحي eraser. Allah the Almighty erased Kufr(كفر) by the the Prophet ﷺ. This part may have several interpretations like
1.Allah ﷻ , the Almighty sent the Prophet to the world in the age of darkness surrounding Kufr(كفر). All of that darkness came to the end by the Prophet.
2. According to Imam Nababi, Coming of Prophet ﷺ with evidence and victory is meant. Such as Allah said, ليظهره على الدين كله “For victory over all religion (sending prophet).( Sura Tawba, verse-33)
3. Narrated from Nafi’ bin Zubair by the Prophet regarding this, و أنا الماحي فإن الله يمحو به السيأت من أتبعه I am eraser, Allah ﷻ ,the Almighty will erase sin of his followers by him. That was said in the holy Quran,
قل للذين كفروا إن ينتهوا يغفر لهم ما قد سلف
Oh Prophet, say the unbelievers, if they abstain from Kufr(كفر) all what was done before will be forgiven.(Sura Anfal,verse-38)(Merqaat, Part-10,Page-457)
Finally, the Prophet ﷺ erased all Kufr(كفر) from Arabian’s thought, home,place of worship, society, culture and so on after had come to the world. For this He is Mahi and bearer of flag of Tawhid.
Explanation of أنا الحاشر:
Its meaning is I am gather. It is said for this reason- الذي يحشر الناس على قدمي that means all of human will be gathered before me.
Regarding its explanation it said in the book “Sarh’us Sunnah”- يحشر أول الناس that means He is the first who will rise again among the human. In another Hadith said, أنا أول من تنشق عنه الأرض firstly I will be rised from earth. ( Tirmizi) Imam Nababi said as explanation of it , All of human will be gathered, no prophet will come after me. (Merqaatul Mafatih, Part-10, Page-457)
Explanation of أنا العاقب:
The meaning of أنا العاقب is I am arriver behind. The Prophet ﷺ was sent at the end though He was first among the creations, for this He was called Aqib (العاقب). Regarding its explanation narrated العاقب الذي ليس بعده نبي It bears the evidence of Khatme Nabuwwat . Such said in the holy Quran,
ما كان محمد أبا أحد من رجالكم و لكن رسول الله و خاتم النبيين
(Sura Ahzab, verse-40)
It is said in Hadith, إني عند الله مكتوب خاتم النبيين , in another Hadith said, أنا خاتم الأنبياء لا نبي بعدي
Learning of this Hadith:
- The Prophet ﷺ is mor praised in Al creations.
- The Prophet ﷺ has innumerable attributive name.
- The Messenger ﷺ enlightened the light of Tawhid after ending the darkness of Jahiliyya.
- Human being are gathered in Qeyamat.
- The Prophet ﷺ came at the end of all prophets, no prophet will come after him.